Syllabus for the S.Y.B.Sc. Program: B.Sc.Course : BOTANY
Course Code SEM III- Title Credits
USBO302 FORM AND FUNCTION II 2 Credits (45 lectures )
Unit II : Cell Biology
Ultra Structure and functions of the following cell organelles:
o Mitochondrion(membranes, cristae, F1 particles and matrix)
o Peroxisomes and Glyoxysomes
o Ribosomes (prokaryotic, eukaryotic and subunits)
Cell Division and its significance
o Cell Cycle, structure of Interphase Nucleus(nuclear envelop, chromatin network, nucleolus and nucleoplasm)
o Mitosis & Meiosis
o Differences between Mitosis and Meiosis
Nucleic Acids: Types, structure and functions of DNA and RNA 15 Lectures
Unit III : Cytogenetics
Variation in Chromosome structure (Chromosomal Aberrations)
Definition, Origin, Cytological and Genetic Effects of the following:
Deletions, Duplications, Inversions and Translocations.
Sex determination, Sex linked, sex influenced and sex limited traits :
Sex determination- Chromosomal Methods: heterogametic males and
heterogametic females. Sex determination in monoecious and dioecious
plants. Genic Balance Theory of sex determination in Drosophila, Lyon’s Hypothesis of
X chromosome inactivation.
Sex linked- eye colour in Drosophila, Haemophilia, colour blindness
Sex influenced- baldness in man
Chloroplast determines heredity - Plastid transmission in plants,
Streptomycin resistance in Chlamydomonas.
o Male sterility in maize 15 Lectures
Unit III : Molecular Biology
DNA replication : Modes of Replication, Messelson and Stahl Experment,
DNA replication in prokaryotes and eukaryotes- enzymes involved
and molecular mechanism of replication.
o Central dogma of Protein synthesis
o Transcription in prokaryotes and eukaryotes: promoter sites,
initiation, elongation and termination.
o RNA processing: Adenylation & Capping 15 Lectures
USBO402 FORM AND FUNCTION II
2 Credits (45 lectures )
Unit I : Anatomy
Normal Secondary Growth in Dicotyledonous stem and root.
Growth rings, periderm, lenticels, tyloses, heart wood and sap wood.
Mechanical Tissue system
o Tissues providing mechanical strength and support and their disposition
o I-girders in aerial and underground organs
Types of Vascular Bundles. 15 Lectures
Unit II : Plant Physiology and Plant Biochemistry
Respiration: Aerobic: Glycolysis, TCA Cycle, ETS & Energetic of respiration;
Photoperiodism: Phytochrome Response and Vernalization with
reference to flowering in higher plants, Physico-chemical properties of
phytochrome, Pr-Pfr interconversion, role of phytochrome in flowering
of SDPs and LDPs;
Vernalization mechanisms and applications. 15 Lectures
Unit III : Ecology and Environmental Botany
Biogeochemical Cycles- Carbon, Nitrogen and Water.
Ecological factors: Concept of environmental factors. Soil as an edaphic
factor, Soil composition, types of soil, soil formation, soil profile.
Community ecology- Characters of community - Quantitative characters
and qualitative characters 15 Lectures
Semester III USBOP3 Cr
PRACTICAL Paper II – FORM AND FUNCTION- II
1 Cell Biology
1. Study of the ultra-structure of cell organelles prescribed for theory from Photomicrographs
2.Estimation of DNA from plant material (one Std & one Unknown, No Std Graph)
3. Estimation of RNA from plant material (one Std & one Unknown, No Std Graph) Cytogenetics
4 Study of inheritance pattern with reference to Plastid Inheritance
5. Study of cytological consequences of chromosomal aberrations (Laggards,
Chromosomal Bridge, Ring chromosome, Chromosomal ring) from
permanent slides or photomicrographs.
6. Study of mitosis and meiosis from suitable plant material
7 DNA sequencing- Sanger’s method
8 Determining the sequence of amino acids in the protein molecule synthesised from
the given m-RNA strand (prokaryotic and eukaryotic)
SEMESTER IV USBOT P4 Cr
PRACTICALS Paper II – FORM AND FUNCTION- II
1 Study of normal secondary growth in the stem and root of a Dicotyledonous plant
2 Types of mechanical tissues, mechanical tissue system in aerial,
3 Study of conducting tissues- Xylem and phloem elements in
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms as seen in LS and through maceration technique.
4 Study of different types of vascular bundles.
5 Growth rings, periderm, lenticels, tyloses, heart wood and sap wood
6 Plant Physiology and Plant Biochemistry
7 Q10 – germinating seeds using Phenol red indicator NR activity – in-vivo
8. Estimation of proteins by Lowry’s method (Prepare standard graph). Ecology
and Environmental Botany
9 Study of the working of the following Ecological Instruments- Soil
thermometer, Soil testing kit, Soil pH, Wind anemometer.
10 Mechanical analysis of soil by the sieve method & pH of soil.
11 Quantitative estimation of organic matter of the soil by Walkley and
Blacks Rapid titration method.
12 Study of vegetation by the list quadrat method
S.Y.B.Sc. BOTANY PRACTICAL SKELETON PAPER SEMESTER - III
TIME - 3 hours PAPER – II Total Marks – 50
Q.1. Make a squash/ smear preparation of specimen ‘A’. Draw and comment on your
observations and show the slides to examiners (10)
Q.2. To estimate DNA/ RNA from the given sample ‘B’. (10)
Q.3. Determine the sequence of bases in a DNA strand by Sanger’s method from the
given data ‘C’
Determine the sequence of amino acids in the polypeptide synthesized from the given
m-RNAstrand ‘C’ (10)
Q.4. Identify and describe the specimen/ photograph - D, E and F (15)
Q.5. Journal/Field Report. (05)
A. – Mitosis/ Meiosis
B. Germinating seeds/Onion
C. DNA seq/AA seq.
D. Cell organelles
E. Plastid inheritance
F. Chromosomal aberrations
UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI
S.Y.B.Sc. BOTANY PRACTICAL SKELETON PAPER SEMESTER - IV
TIME - 2 hours 15 min PAPER – II Total Marks – 50
Q.1. a). Make a temporary stained preparation of T.S. of specimen ‘A’ and comment on the
secondary growth/ mechanical tissue system/ Macerate the given material ‘A’ and
describe the conducting tissue seen. (10)
Q.2. Perform the Physiological experiment ‘B’ allotted to you. (13)
Q.3. Perform the Ecological experiment ‘C’ allotted to you. (13)
Q.4. Identify and describe the specimen/ slide/ photograph - ‘D’ ‘E’ and ‘F’ . (06)
Q.5. Viva - Voce. (05)
A. – Dicot stem/ dicot root / Mechanical Tissue (Coleus stem, Typha leaf, Maize stem and Maize
root /Annona / Magnolia for maceration).
B. – Q10 – germinating seeds using Phenol red indicator NR activity – in-vivo
Estimation of proteins by Lowry’s method
C- Mechanical analysis of soil by the sieve method & pH of soil
Estimation of organic matter of the soil
Study of vegetation by the list quadrat method
D - Vascular bundles
E. – Growth rings, periderm, lenticels, tyloses, heart wood and sap wood
F. – Ecological Instrument